The increasing incidence of obesity and diabetes due to changes in diet, earlier menarche, delayed menopause, late marriage, and declining birth rate have resulted in an increase in the number of endometrial cancer cases over the last few decades. Although surgical therapy is sufficient for early endometrial cancer, there is no effective therapy for patients with advanced and recurrent endometrial cancer. The oncogenic mechanism of endometrial cancer involves microsatellite instability (MSI) caused by dysfunction of DNA mismatch repair genes in 30% of patients. Immune checkpoint inhibitors, including anti-programmed death (PD)-1 and anti-PD-ligand 1 antibodies, are of interest as novel anticancer drugs; however, these drugs are currently expensive, and there is a need to select patients who will benefit from their use. The use of MSI analysis as a predictive biomarker for the therapeutic efficacy of these drugs may be useful for reducing the costs of drug therapy.
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