Uterus transplantation (UTx) is considered to be a possible approach for women with uterine factor infertility. Clinical research on this procedure has begun in several countries, but UTx is still at the experimental stage and many medical and technical issues remain to be resolved. UTx studies have been performed in many animal species, but further basic studies in animals are needed for accumulation of data that will allow further establishment of UTx, as a safe procedure in humans. In particular, validation using nonhuman primates that are physiologically and anatomically similar to humans is important for extrapolation to humans. In this chapter, the current status of research on UTx in nonhuman primates is summarized.
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