Redox flow batteries (RFBs) have emerged as a promising candidate for large-scale energy storage because of the flexible design for high energy, power, and safety. In this study, FeCl3·6H2O/urea composite deep eutectic catholyte (FeU-DEC)-infused self-standing carbon nanofiber (CNF) was synthesized for green and high power density RFB through industrially available processes. FeU-DEC-infused CNF displayed an extremely high power density (874 mW/g) as well as high capacity (27.28 mAh/g) derived from high theoretical capacity of FeU-DEC (89.24 mAh/g) in addition to the advantages of the FeU-DEC characteristics (e.g., nonflammable, biodegradable, facile preparation). This is because of the large electroactive area derived from the high surface area of CNF and superlyophilicity of FeU-DEC on CNFs. Furthermore, we compared the wettability of CNF with other electrodes, as well as the chemical stability and electrode performance, based on topological wetting analysis using parameters of fiber radius, fiber interval, the equilibrium contact angle of FeU-DEC on electrodes, and surface tension of FeU-DEC, giving wetting threshold for FeU-DEC on fibrous electrodes. The wetting analysis are applied not only for FeU-DEC, but also for a wide range of other DECs and deep eutectic anolyte. This work contributes to the further development of green and high-performance RFBs.
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