Background: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a biologically heterogeneous disease that is often associated with worse outcomes compared with other subtypes such as hormone receptor-positive tumors and HER2-positive tumors. While chemotherapy remains the mainstay of standard therapy for metastatic TNBC (mTNBC), several novel treatments have been developed over the past few years. In this review article, we review the major developments in the management of patients with mTNBC. Summary: The combination of chemotherapy and immunotherapy is a potential therapeutic option for PD-L1-positive mTNBC, as the FDA recently approved atezolizumab (Tecentriq) and pembrolizumab (Keytruda) in combination with chemotherapy. Also, 2 targeted therapies-olaparib (Lynparza) and talazoparib (Talzenna)-are FDA approved for the management of mTNBC with germline BRCA mutations, and sacituzumab govitecan, an anti-Trop2 antibody-drug conjugate (ADC), was recently approved for previously treated mTNBC. A number of promising therapies are on the horizon, including AKT inhibitors for PI3K-altered TNBC as well as other ADCs. Key Message: The successful clinical development of immunotherapies, PARP inhibitors, and ADCs for the management of mTNBC has improved the survival outcome of patients. Over the coming years, the therapeutic developments in precision medicine will likely change the mTNBC landscape, and might make the current definition of TNBC as breast cancer that is estrogen receptor negative, progesterone receptor negative, and HER2 negative obsolete.
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