Governing equations to describe electromagnetic phenomena in superconductors were derived by using IIelmholtz theorem. The Meissner effect, which is common to type-I and type-II superconductors, is treated by introducing the magnetization vector “M. The current flow due to flux invasion into the superconductor, which is a particular phenomenon in the type-II superconductor, is evaluated using current vector potential “T” together with constitutive equations expressing critical state models. Numerical results based on a two dimensional FEM code, showed excellent agreement with analytical solutions.
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