The physics of the anomalous and spin Hall effects is one of the most intriguing aspects of condensed matter physics. An important finding from a large collection of experimental and theoretical results is the universal scaling of the anomalous or spin Hall conductivity with the electric conductivity. This scaling has been successfully described by the intrinsic Berry curvature and extrinsic scattering mechanisms for metallic systems, revealing the topological nature of these effects. In contrast, the underlying physics in the opposite limit, the disordered insulating regime, is still unclear. In particular, it remains a major challenge, both experimentally and theoretically, to explore the spin Hall effect in the insulating regime. Here, we report the observation of the crossover between the metallic and insulating regimes of the spin Hall effect. The result demonstrates a direct correspondence between the spin and anomalous Hall effects, which will advance the fundamental understanding of spin transport.
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