Background: Augmented renal clearance (ARC) is associated with lower blood plasma concentrations of renally excreted drugs; however, its time course is unknown. The current study aimed to determine the onset timing/duration of ARC, its risk factors, and its association with clinical outcomes by continuous monitoring of urinary creatinine clearance (CrCl) in critically ill patients. Methods: Data were retrospectively obtained from the medical records of 2592 critically ill patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) from January 2019 to June 2022 at a tertiary emergency hospital. Among these, patients with continuously measured urinary CrCl were selected and observed over time. We evaluated the onset timing and duration of ARC by plotting Kaplan–Meier curves. Furthermore, by multivariate analyses, factors associated with the onset and persistence of ARC were analyzed, and the association between the ARC time course and clinical outcomes was evaluated. Results: The prevalence of ARC was 33.4% (245/734). ARC onset was within 3 days of admission in approximately half of the cases, and within 1 week in most of the other cases. In contrast, the persistence duration of ARC varied widely (median, 5 days), and lasted for more than a month in some cases. Multivariate analysis identified younger age, male sex, lower serum creatinine at admission, admission with central nervous system disease, no medical history, use of mechanically assisted ventilation, and vasopressor use as onset factors for ARC. Furthermore, factors associated with ARC persistence such as younger age and higher urinary CrCl on ARC day 1 were detected. The onset of ARC was significantly associated with reduced mortality, but persistent of ARC was significantly associated with fewer ICU-free days. Conclusions: Despite the early onset of ARC, its duration varied widely and ARC persisted longer in younger patients with higher urinary CrCl. Since the duration of ARC was associated with fewer ICU-free days, it may be necessary to consider a long-term increased-dose regimen of renally excreted drugs beginning early in patients who are predicted to have a persistent ARC.
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