Background: Since nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease (NTM-PD) is common in middle-aged/elderly slender women at risk of osteoporosis, we hypothesized that NTM-PD could be associated with osteoporosis. The study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of osteoporosis in patients with NTM-PD compared with that in the general population and determine the factors associated with osteoporosis in the subjects, including the serum estradiol (E2) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels. Methods: We have recruited 228 consecutive adult patients with NTM-PD from a prospective cohort study at the Keio University Hospital, who had no history of osteoporosis or osteoporosis-associated bone fracture but underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-based bone mineral density (BMD) evaluation from August 2017–September 2019. The E2 and 25OHD levels were measured in 165 patients with available stored serum samples. We performed multivariable logistic regression analyses for osteopenia and osteoporosis. Results: Osteoporosis (T-score ≤ − 2.5) and osteopenia (T-score − 1 to − 2.5) were diagnosed in 35.1% and 36.8% of patients with NTM-PD, respectively. Compared with the general population, the proportion of osteoporosis was significantly higher in 50–59-, 60–69-, and 70–79-year-old women with NTM-PD. Multivariable analysis revealed that older age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] for 1-year increase = 1.12; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.07–1.18), female sex (aOR = 36.3; 95% CI = 7.57–174), lower BMI (aOR for 1 kg/m2 decrease = 1.37; 95% CI = 1.14–1.65), and chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) infection (aOR = 6.70; 95% CI = 1.07–41.8) were independently associated with osteoporosis. Additionally, multivariable analysis in 165 patients whose serum E2 and 25OHD levels were measured showed that both low E2 levels (< 10 pg/mL) and lower 25OHD levels were independently associated with osteoporosis. Conclusions: Middle-aged/elderly women with NTM-PD have a higher prevalence of osteoporosis than the general population. BMD screening should be considered in NTM-PD, especially in older females with severe diseases such as chronic PA infection and lower BMI, and low serum E2 and 25OHD levels.
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