Subgroup analyses of a randomized global phase II study of axitinib showed objective response rate of 66% and median progression-free survival of 27.6 months in treatment-naïve Japanese patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). This analysis evaluated overall survival (OS) and safety in 44 Japanese patients and compared the results with 169 non-Japanese patients. In addition, baseline characteristics for predictive factors that may influence OS in first-line metastatic RCC were explored in all patients using a Cox proportional hazard model. With median follow-up of 33 months, fewer than half (16 of 44) of the Japanese patients had died and median OS was not reached (95% confidence interval [CI], 38.8 months–not estimable), whereas 107 of 169 (63%) non-Japanese patients had died and median OS was 33.9 months (95% CI, 28.9–42.7). Estimated 1-year, 2-year and 3-year survival probability (95% CI) was 86.4% (76.2–96.5), 75.0% (62.2–87.8) and 68.2% (54.4–81.9), respectively, in Japanese patients, and was higher than that in non-Japanese patients (75.1% [68.4–81.8], 62.1% [54.5–69.7] and 47.2% [39.3–55.1], respectively). The updated safety analysis did not reveal any new adverse events of concern among Japanese or non-Japanese patients. The multivariate analysis identified that lower baseline Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, lower baseline tumor burden, and longer time from histopathological diagnosis to treatment were significant positive predictors of OS. The current analysis confirmed the clinical activity of axitinib in treatment-naïve Japanese patients with metastatic RCC, with an acceptable toxicity profile.
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