Overlap syndrome is a clinical entity of myositis concomitant with one or more collagen diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, and/or rheumatoid arthritis. It is not evident whether the myopathology of overlap syndrome is disease-specific or categorizes one of the four major subsets: inclusion body myositis, immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy, dermatomyositis, and antisynthetase syndrome. We report a patient with overlap syndrome who exhibited autoantibodies against multiple transfer-RNA components by RNA immunoprecipitation, suggesting antisynthetase syndrome. A 64-year-old woman developed systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, and myositis. Muscle biopsy showed perifascicular necrosis and perimysial alkaline phosphatase positivity, suggesting antisynthetase syndrome. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was negative for autoantibodies to aminoacyl transfer-RNA synthetase, whereas RNA immunoprecipitation revealed a novel antibody to multiple transfer-RNA components. Although the myopathology of overlap syndrome may be diagnosed as any one of various subsets, this case suggests that the myopathological features of overlap syndrome may include antisynthetase syndrome.
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