PAX3/7-FOXO1 fusion-negative alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS) developed in a patient presenting with intellectual disability and dysmorphic facial features. Whole exome sequencing analysis of a germline sample identified a PACS1 c.607 C>T de novo variant and the patient was diagnosed with Schuurs-Hoeijmakers syndrome (SHS). SHS is a rare disease characterized by intellectual disability and dysmorphic facial features, among various physical abnormalities, due to PACS1 c.607 C>T de novo variant. Due to the rarity of the SHS, diagnosis based on phenotypic information is difficult. To date, there have been no previous reports describing malignancy associated with SHS. Comprehensive somatic mutation analysis revealed a unique pattern of genetic alterations in the PAX3/7-FOXO1 fusion-negative ARMS tumor, including mutations in the oncogene, HRAS; MYOD1, a molecule essential for muscle differentiation; and KMT2C and TET1, genes encoding factors involved in epigenetic regulation. Although the role of PACS1 in tumorigenesis is unclear, it is reported to function in apoptosis regulation. Our case suggests that PACS1 could have a novel role in oncogenesis.
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