Background: Recent progress in surgical and intensive care has improved the prognosis of congenital heart disease (CHD) associated with heterotaxy syndrome. Less is known, however, about pulmonary vascular complications in these patients. Methods and Results: We reviewed medical records of 236 patients who were diagnosed with polysplenia syndrome at 2 institutions for pediatric cardiology in Japan from 1978 to 2015. We selected and compared the clinical records of 16 patients with polysplenia who had incomplete atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD) as the polysplenia group, and 22 age-matched patients with incomplete AVSD without any syndromes including polysplenia as the control group. Although the severity of systemic to pulmonary shunt was not significantly different between the groups, mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) and pulmonary vascular resistance index (PVRI) were significantly higher in the polysplenia group than the control (mPAP, 37.3 vs. 19.1 mmHg, P=0.001; PVRI, 5.7 vs. 1.4 WU · m2, P=0.014) before surgical intervention. On regression analysis, polysplenia influenced the development of pulmonary hypertension (PH) regardless of age at evaluation or degree of systemic to pulmonary shunt in the patients with incomplete AVSD. Conclusions: Polysplenia syndrome is an independent risk factor for CHD-associated PH. Earlier intervention may be required to adjust the pulmonary blood flow in polysplenia syndrome with CHD to avoid the progression of PH.
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