We conducted population pharmacokinetic (PPK) analysis and Monte Carlo simulations to determine the appropriate prophylactic dose of fluconazole to prevent invasive candidiasis in patients with hematological malignancies. Patients receiving chemotherapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation at Yokohama City University Hospital between November 2018 and March 2020 were included. Additionally, patients receiving oral fluconazole for prophylaxis were recruited. We set the free area under the curve/minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) = 50 as the target and determined the largest MIC (breakpoint MIC) that could achieve more than 90% probability of target attainment. The blood fluconazole concentration of 54 patients (119 points) was used for PPK analysis. The optimal model was the one-compartment model with first-order administration and first-order elimination incorporating creatinine clearance (CLcr) as a covariate of clearance and body weight as a covariate of distribution volume. We conducted Monte Carlo simulation with fluconazole at 200 mg/day or 400 mg/day dosing schedules and patient body weight and CLcr ranging from 40 to 70 kg and 40–140 mL/min, respectively. The breakpoint MICs on the first dosing day and at steady state were 0.5–1.0 µg/mL and 1.0–2.0 µg/mL for 200 mg/day and 1.0–2.0 µg/mL and 2.0–4.0 µg/mL for 400 mg/day, respectively. The recommended dose was 400–700 mg/day for the loading dose and 200–400 mg/day for the maintenance dose. Our findings suggest that the optimal prophylactic dose of fluconazole in hematological malignancy patients depends on CLcr and body weight, and a sufficient loading and maintenance dose may be needed to completely prevent invasive candidiasis.
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