Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) and human herpesvirus (HHV)-6 encephalitis are both serious neurological complications post hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Although infection is one of the important causes of PRES, only few cases have reported the relation between PRES and viral infection. Herein, we report the first adult case of PRES concurrent with HHV-6 encephalitis after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia. This case suggests that HHV-6 reactivation is associated with the pathogenesis of PRES. Also, PRES and HHV-6 encephalitis cause similar symptoms, and switching the immunosuppressant from calcineurin inhibitor to prednisolone for treating PRES may worsen HHV-6 encephalitis. Therefore, we should pay attention to the complication of HHV-6 encephalitis even after PRES is diagnosed.
ASJC Scopus subject areas