Purpose We aimed to determine appropriate treatment guidelines for patients with stages I–II high-grade neuroendocrine carcinomas (HGNEC) of the uterine cervix in a multicenter retrospective study. Patients and methods We reviewed the clinicopathological features and prognoses of 93 patients with HGNEC of International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stages I and II. All patients were diagnosed with HGNEC by central pathological review. Results The median overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were 111.3 months and 47.4 months, respectively. Eighty-eight patients underwent radical surgery, and five had definitive radiotherapy. The hazard ratio (HR) for death after definitive radiotherapy to death after radical surgery was 4.74 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01–15.90). Of the surgery group, 18 received neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Pathological prognostic factors and optimal adjuvant therapies were evaluated for the 70 patients. Forty-one patients received adjuvant chemotherapy with etoposide–platinum (EP) or irinotecan–platinum (CPT–P). Multivariate analyses identified the invasion of lymphovascular spaces as a significant prognostic factor for both OS and DFS. Pelvic lymph node metastasis was also a prognostic factor for DFS. Adjuvant chemotherapy with an EP or CPT–P regimen appeared to improve DFS (HR = 0.27, 95% CI, 0.10–0.69). A trend toward improved OS was also observed, but was not statistically significant (HR = 0.39, 95% CI, 0.15–1.01). Conclusion Radical surgery followed by adjuvant chemotherapy with an EP or CPT–P regimen was optimal treatment for stages I and II HGNEC of the uterine cervix.
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