Background: Association between baseline medications plus neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and the effectiveness of immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) plus platinum doublet remains unknown, despite several reported prognostic models. We used real-world data to investigate whether baseline medications plus NLR predict survival outcomes in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) receiving ICI plus platinum doublet. Methods: This multicenter, retrospective, observational study conducted in Japan between December 2018 and March 2021 used real-world data of consecutive patients with advanced NSCLC who received ICI (pembrolizumab or atezolizumab) plus platinum doublet as first-line treatment. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were estimated using the Kaplan–Meier method. The prognostic score for baseline medications plus NLR was weighted by regression β coefficients and used to categorize patients into good, intermediate, and poor prognoses groups. In addition, time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curve analyses and univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were constructed. Results: Overall, 241 patients were included. Poor prognosis was significantly associated with worse PFS (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.78; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08–2.94; P = 0.025) and OS (HR: 3.59; 95% CI: 2.05–6.28; P < 0.001) than good prognosis. Harrell’s C-index for this prognostic model was 0.648. Conclusions: Baseline medication plus NLR could predict progressively worse survival outcomes in patients with advanced NSCLC receiving ICI plus platinum doublet and could be used as a prognostic index for poor outcomes.
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