A 58-year-old man was diagnosed as a hepatitis B virus (HBV) carrier approximately 30 years ago. He was diagnosed with renal cell carcinoma when he was 57 years old. Radical nephrectomy was performed, and everolimus was administered to treat his lung metastasis. After beginning the everolimus, intermittent fever, general fatigue, and jaundice developed. He was admitted under a diagnosis of flare (acute exacerbation) of chronic B hepatitis due to HBV reactivation. Despite intensive care, he died of hepatic failure and fungus infection. The autopsy findings were compatible with hepatic failure due to HBV reactivation by everolimus. Antiviral prophylaxis must be taken into consideration before beginning immunosuppressive therapy such as everolimus in HBV carriers.
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