Rare malignant neoplasm of the esophagus: current status and future perspectives

Yuri Yoshinami, Erica Nishimura, Taisuke Hosokai, Shun Yamamoto, Satoru Matsuda, Motoo Nomura, Hirofumi Kawakubo, Ken Kato, Yuko Kitagawa

研究成果: Review article査読


Esophageal cancer is common worldwide, including in Japan, and its major histological subtype is squamous cell carcinoma. However, there are some rare esophageal cancers, including neuroendocrine neoplasm, gastrointestinal stromal tumor, carcinosarcoma and malignant melanoma. The biological and clinical features of these cancers differ from those of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Therefore, different treatment strategies are needed for these cancers but are based on limited evidence. Neuroendocrine neoplasm is mainly divided into neuroendocrine tumor and neuroendocrine carcinoma by differentiation and the Ki-67 proliferation index or mitotic index. Epidemiologically, the majority of esophageal neuroendocrine neoplasms are neuroendocrine carcinoma. The treatment of neuroendocrine carcinoma is similar to that of small cell lung cancer, which has similar morphological and biological features. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor is known to be associated with alterations in the c-KIT and platelet-derived growth factor receptor genes and, if resectable, is treated in accordance with the modified Fletcher classification. Carcinosarcoma is generally resistant to both chemotherapy and radiotherapy and requires multimodal treatments such as surgery plus chemotherapy to achieve cure. Primary malignant melanoma is resistant to cytotoxic chemotherapy, but immune checkpoint inhibitors have recently demonstrated efficacy for malignant melanoma of the esophagus. This review focuses on the current status and future perspectives for rare cancer of the esophagus.

ジャーナルJapanese journal of clinical oncology
出版ステータスPublished - 2024 2月 1

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • 腫瘍学
  • 放射線学、核医学およびイメージング
  • 癌研究


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