Immune and inflammatory systems are controlled by multiple cytokines, including interleukins and interferons. These cytokines exert their biological functions through Janus tyrosine kinases and signal transducer and activator of transcription factors. The cytokine-inducible Src homology 2 protein (CIS) and suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) are a family of intracellular proteins, several of which have emerged as key physiological regulators of cytokine responses, including those that regulate the inflammatory systems. In this short review, we focused on the molecular mechanism of the action of CIS/SOCS family proteins and their roles in Toll-like receptor signal regulation and inflammatory diseases.
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