Objective: The purpose of our study was to investigate the risk factors of remnant tumor growth after incomplete resection (IR) of cervical dumbbell-shaped schwannomas (DS). Methods: Twenty-one patients with IR of cervical DS with at least 2 years of follow-up were included and were divided into 2 groups: the remnant tumor growth (G) (n = 10) and no growth (NG) (n = 11) groups. The tumor location in the axial plane according to Toyama classification, the location of the remnant tumor margin, and the tumor growth rate (MIB-1 index) index were compared. Results: No significant differences in Toyama classification and MIB-1 index were found. Age was significantly higher in the G group (61.4 years vs. 47.6 years; p = 0.030), but uni-variate logistic regression analysis revealed little correlation to the growth (odds ratio [OR], 1.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.001–1.166; p = 0.047). Seventeen patients (9 in the G and 8 in the NG group) underwent the posterior one-way approach, and significant differences in the location of the remnant tumor margin were confirmed: within the spinal ca-nal in 1 and 0 case, at the entrance of the intervertebral foramen in 7 and 1 cases, and in the foramen distal from the entrance in 1 and 7 cases, in the G and NG groups, respectively (p = 0.007). The proximal margin was identified as a significant predictor of the growth (OR, 56.0; 95% CI, 2.93–1,072; p = 0.008). Conclusion: Remnant tumors with margins distally away from the entrance of the foramen were less likely to grow after IR of cervical DS.
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