This retrospective study assessed the treatment planning data and clinical outcomes for 152 prostate cancer patients: 76 consecutive patients treated by carbon-ion radiation therapy and 76 consequtive patients treated by moderate hypo-fractionated intensity-modulated photon radiation therapy. These two modalities were compared using linear quadratic model equivalent doses in 2 Gy per fraction for rectal or rectal wall dose–volume histogram, 3.6 Gy per fraction-converted rectal dose–volume histogram, normal tissue complication probability model, and actual clinical outcomes. Carbon-ion radiation therapy was predicted to have a lower probability of rectal adverse events than intensity-modulated photon radiation therapy based on dose–volume histograms and normal tissue complication probability model. There was no difference in the clinical outcome of rectal adverse events between the two modalities compared in this study.
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