Background: Reoperation is usually associated with poor results and increased morbidity and hospital costs. However, the rates, causes, and risk factors for reoperation in patients undergoing lumbar spinal fusion surgery remain controversial. This study aimed to identify the risk factors for early reoperation after posterior lumbar interbody fusion surgery and to compare the clinical outcomes between patients who underwent reoperation and those who did not. Methods: We investigated a multicenter medical record database of 1263 patients who underwent posterior lumbar interbody fusion surgery between 2012 and 2015. A total of 72 (5.7%) reoperations within two years after surgery were identified and were propensity-matched for age, sex, number of fusion segments, and surgeon's experience. Results: We analyzed a total of 114 patients (57 who underwent reoperation (R group) and 57 who did not (C group)). The mean age was 62.6 ± 13.4 years, with 78 men and 36 women. The mean number of fused segments was 1.2 ± 0.5. Surgical site infection was the most common cause of reoperation. There were significant differences in the incidence of diabetes mellitus (p = 0.024), preoperative ambulation status (p = 0.046), and ASA grade (p < 0.001) between the C and R groups. The recovery rate of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association score was significantly lower in the R group compared to the C group (R: 50.5 ± 28.8%, C: 63.9 ± 33.7%, p = 0.024). There were significant differences in the bone fusion rate (R: 63.2%, C: 96.5%, p < 0.001) and incidence of screw loosening (R: 31.6%; C: 10.5%; p = 0.006). Conclusion: Diabetes mellitus, preoperative ambulation status, and ASA grade were significant risk factors for early reoperation following posterior lumbar interbody fusion surgery. The patients who underwent early reoperation had worse clinical outcomes than those who did not.
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