Aim: This study aimed to clarify the efficacy and safety of simeprevir, a second-generation NS3/4A inhibitor, with peginterferon and ribavirin for recurrent hepatitis C after liver transplantation. Methods: A retrospective cohort study of living-donor liver transplant recipients with recurrent hepatitis C with the hepatitis C virus genotype 1 treated with either simeprevir- or telaprevir-based triple therapy was carried out at eight Japanese liver transplant centers. Results: Simeprevir- and telaprevir-based triple therapies were given to 79 and 36 patients, respectively. Of the 79 patients treated with simeprevir-based triple therapy, 44 (56%) achieved sustained virological response 12 weeks (SVR12) after treatment ended, and there was no significant difference in the SVR12 between the simeprevir- and telaprevir-based triple therapy groups (69%). The rates of adverse events were not significantly different between the simeprevir- and telaprevir-based triple therapy groups, although the rate of patients who received blood cell transfusion and erythropoietin due to anemia and had renal insufficiency were significantly higher in the telaprevir group than in the simeprevir group. Three baseline factors, the presence of prior dual therapy with peginterferon and ribavirin (P = 0.001), a non-responder to the prior dual therapy (P < 0.001), and male sex (P = 0.040), were identified as significant predictive factors for non-SVR with simeprevir-based triple therapy. Conclusion: Simeprevir-based triple therapy for recurrent hepatitis C after living-donor liver transplantation resulted in a high SVR rate and good tolerability, especially in treatment-naïve patients.
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