Background: Plasma levels of small, dense low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were reported to increase in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients on hemodialysis (HD), but most of these patients were hypertriglyceridemic. Plasma levels of small, dense LDL are known to increase in hypertriglyceridemic subjects. Therefore, to investigate the direct effect of CKD on the distribution of LDL subfractions, we investigated the distribution of LDL subfractions in normotriglyceridemic CKD patients on HD. Methods: The levels of plasma lipoprotein subfractions and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), which markedly influence the distributions of plasma LDL and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) subfractions, were compared between 40 HD patients and 40 normolipidemic controls. Plasma lipoproteins were subfractionated into seven subfractions by ultracentrifugation. Results: Plasma levels of cholesterol (C) in remnant-like particle, which is equivalent to the triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoprotein remnant, were twice as high in HD patients as those in controls with matched TG levels. Plasma levels of C and TG in VLDL and IDL (intermediate density lipoprotein) were slightly higher in HD patients than in controls. The C/TG ratio of VLDL was significantly higher in HD patients than in controls. In comparison with the corresponding values in controls, the C and TG levels in low-density LDL and HDL2 in HD patients were high, whereas those in medium-density LDL, high-density LDL, and HDL3 were low. Plasma LCAT activity and CETP mass were lower in HD patients than in controls. Conclusion: Distribution of LDL and HDL skewed toward less dense fractions in normotriglyceridemic CKD patients on HD. A decrease in reverse C transport likely played an important role in these changes in the patients.
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