Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) is a genetically heterogeneous condition that occurs either as an isolated disorder or as a component of congenital malformation syndromes. SOX2 is a causative gene of syndromic HH characterized by anophthalmia, microphthalmia, or coloboma and other neurological defects such as epilepsy. To date, the causal relationship between SOX2 abnormalities and non-syndromic HH remains speculative. Here, we identified a nonsense mutation of SOX2 in a male patient clinically diagnosed with non-syndromic HH. The patient had epilepsy but no additional clinical features. Ophthalmological examination revealed no abnormalities except for decreased thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer. Audiometry showed mild sensorineural hearing impairment of both ears. Hormonal evaluation suggested isolated gonadotropin deficiency. Next-generation sequencing-based mutation screening of 13 major causative genes for HH identified a p.Lys35* mutation in SOX2 and excluded pathogenic mutations in other tested genes. The p.Lys35* mutation appeared to encode a non-functioning SOX2 protein that lacks 283 of 317 amino acids. The SOX2 mutation was absent in the maternal DNA sample, while a paternal sample was unavailable for sequence analysis. These results expand the clinical consequences of SOX2 haploinsufficiency to include non-syndromic HH. Systematic mutation screening using a next-generation sequencer and detailed evaluation of nonspecific ocular/neurological features may help identify SOX2 mutation-positive individuals among HH patients.
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