Human spermatozoal RNAs were recently profiled using microarrays and explored as clinical markers of male infertility. An appropriate study design with a considerable number of biological replicates (sperm samples) is necessary to validate the accuracy and reproducibility of these microarray data. If the genes identified as sperm quality markers by microarray studies are successfully attributed to the pathogenesis of male infertility, then the microarray strategy may be used as a clinical diagnostic tool for male infertility. On the other hand, spermatozoal RNAs may contain not only remnant RNAs after spermatogenesis, but also RNAs that may contribute extragenomically to early embryonic development. Therefore, spermatozoal RNA profiling may enable a better understanding of what is contributed to the oocyte by sperm, in addition to their genome, to facilitate early embryonic development.
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