Background: Squamous cell papilloma of the esophagus is considered to be a rare condition; however, the number of cases with this condition reported in recent years has increased, perhaps due to advances in endoscopic diagnosis. Methods: We reviewed the clinicopathological features of 26 lesions of squamous cell papilloma of the esophagus in 24 cases seen at our hospital from 1994 to 2003. There were nine men and 15 women, with a mean age of 60.5 years (range, 31-82 years). Six patients had a history of malignant disease in the past. With regard to the presence of other lesions in the esophagus, six patients had hiatal hernia and four had gastroesophageal reflux disease. Results: Two patients each had two lesions of squamous cell papilloma. There were seven lesions in which inflammatory cell infiltration was found on hisotological examination, of which four had underlying hiatal hernia; five lesions were found to have mild dysplasia on histological examination of which three had gastroesophageal reflux disease. The median duration of follow up of the cases was 8 months (range, 1-101 months). During the follow-up period, none of the lesions showed any dramatic change of appearance or malignant transformation. Conclusion: In principle, while it may be sufficient to keep patients with squamous cell papilloma of the esophagus under simple follow up, the patients must be investigated to rule out malignancy of other organs, and the small probability of malignant transformation of the tumor must always be borne in mind.
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