Cervical cancer ranks high among the cancers that affect people in their 20s and 30s. Cervical cancer is characterized by the presence of precancerous lesions, which can be detected by cancer screenings; some precancerous lesions are amenable to treatment, which can halt the progression to invasive cancer. As a result, cervical cancer screening has been shown to reduce the incidence of invasive cancer and its mortality. On the other hand, many precancerous lesions do not progress to invasive cancer, but stagnate or disappear spontaneously. In Japan, there is a nationwide cytological screening program for residents, and the screening is performed every two years after the age of 20. There are also screening programs provided by the workplaces in Japan. According to the National Health Survey 2019, the checkup rates of any type of cervical cancer screenings are low: 15.1% for those aged 20–24, 36.6% for those aged 25–29, and 49.4% for those aged 30–34. Statistics are reported every year for the nationwide screening, and according to them, the positive screening rate is 2.1% for all ages, but 4.5% and 3.2% for those in their 20s and 30s, respectively. On the other hand, the percentage of people with positive test results who undergo follow-up examinations or confirmatory tests should be at least 90%, but it is 72.1% for all ages, 72.0% for those in their 30s, and even lower for those in their 20s, at 67.1%. Improving the rate of people getting screenings and subsequent examinations is a challenge even among the young.
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