Bone metabolism and the immune system have a correlative relationship, and both are controlled by various common cytokines, such as IFNs and ILs, produced in the bone microenvironments. The suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 (SOCS1) and SOCS3 are negative regulators of such cytokines. Although SOCSs are shown to be induced during osteoclast differentiation, their physiological roles in osteoclast differentiation and function have not been clarified. Thus, we examined the roles of SOCS1 and SOCS3 in Osteoclastogenesis using SOCS1- and SOCS3-deficient mice. IFN-γ-mediated inhibition of osteoclast differentiation from bone marrow-derived monocytes (BMMs) was strongly enhanced in SOCS1-deflcient BMMs, but was diminished in SOCS1-overexpressing BMMs. Moreover, LPS-induced Osteoclastogenesis and bone destruction in vivo were suppressed in SOCS1+/- mice compared with those in wild-type mice, suggesting that SOCS1 antagonizes the inhibitory effect of IFN-γ on Osteoclastogenesis. SOCS3 did not alter the inhibitory effect of IFNs in Osteoclastogenesis in both gain and loss of functional assays; however, the suppressive effect of IL-6 on osteoclast differentiation was greater in SOCS3-deficient BMMs than in wild-type BMMs in vitro. In addition, IL-6 significantly prevented LPS-induced bone destruction in SOCS3-deficient mice, although it failed in wild-type mice in vivo. In SOCS3-deficient BMMs, expression levels of TNF-receptor-associated factor-6 and IκB were drastically reduced and receptor activator of the NF-κB ligand-induced IκB phospliorylation was severely impaired in the presence of IL-6. These data suggest that both SOCS1 and SOCS3 regulate osteoclastogenesis by blocking the inhibitory effect of inflammatory cytokines on receptor activator of the NF-κB ligand-mediated osteoclast differentiation signals. Selective suppression of SOCS1 and SOCS3 in osteoclast precursors may be a possible therapeutic strategy for inflammatory bone destruction.
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