Testes size was compared among 19 species of Japanese anurans in relation to their breeding systems. Although the mean body mass of the species examined varied markedly between 1.8 and 116 g, the mean proportion of testes mass to body mass was fairly constant at 0.2 to 0.4% across all species except the rhacophorid species. Foam-nest building rhacophorids had relatively large testes constituting more than 1% of their body mass. Among them, Rhacophorus arboreus had the largest, exceeding 5% of the body mass. Multi-male breeding, where a female is grasped by two or more males during spawning, occurs frequently in these rhacophorids, especially in R. arboreus. This close association between large testes size and multi-male breeding strongly suggests that sperm competition is an important factor affecting the evolution of relative testes size in Japanese anurans.
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