Dynamic binding of different brain areas is critical for various cognitive functions. The thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) is a GABAergic nucleus that constrains information flow through thalamocortical loop by providing inhibitory innervation to the thalamus. In this review, I summarize anatomical and single-cell-level physiological studies of the rodent TRN. Diversity and heterogeneity of TRN neurons in terms of axonal innervation, molecular expression, and physiological characteristics are described. I also outline thalamocortical and cortico-cortical connections with emphasis on interaction with the TRN. In summary, it is proposed that functional connectivity among brain regions are modulated with gating of transthalamic information flow by the TRN.
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