Few prospective studies have examined the combined impact of blood pressure (BP) categories and glucose abnormalities on the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the general Asian population. This study aimed to examine the effect of the combined risks of these factors on the incidence of CVD in a general Japanese population. We studied 5321 Japanese individuals (aged 30-79 years), without CVD at baseline, who received follow-up for an average of 11.7 years. Serum fasting glucose categories were defined according to the 2003 American Diabetes Association recommendations. BP categories were defined by the 2009 Japanese Society of Hypertension Guidelines for the Management of Hypertension. The Cox proportional hazard ratios (HRs) for CVD according to the serum glucose and BP categories were calculated. In 62 036 person-years of follow-up, we documented 364 CVD events (198 stroke and 166 coronary heart disease (CHD)). Compared with normoglycemic subjects, the multivariable HRs (95% confidence intervals (CIs)) for CVD, CHD and stroke were 1.25 (1.00-1.58), 1.46 (1.04-2.04) and 1.11 (0.81-1.52), respectively, in individuals with impaired fasting glucose (IFG), whereas these values were 2.13 (1.50-3.03), 2.28 (1.34-3.88) and 2.08 (1.29-3.35), respectively, in individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM). Compared with normoglycemic and optimal blood pressure (BP) subjects, increased risks of CVD were observed in the normoglycemic subjects with high-normal BP or hypertension, the IFG subjects with normal or higher BP, and the DM subjects regardless of BP category (P-value for interaction0.046). In conclusion, the high-normal BP subjects in all glucose categories and the normal BP subjects with IFG showed increased risk of CVD in this Japanese population. Further investigation of larger cohorts of DM subjects should be conducted to better understand this phenomenon.
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