The environmental conditions for tropical cyclone genesis are examined by numerical experiment. We focus on the case of a non-developing disturbance showed features for tropical cyclone genesis in the Pacific Area Long-term Atmospheric observation for Understanding climate change in 2010 (PALAU2010) observation campaign over the western North Pacific. We clarify the importance of the presence of abundant moisture around the disturbance for continuous convection and demonstrate that the collocation of a mid-level vortex and a low-level vortex, i.e., the persistence of an upright structure of vortices, is important in tropical cyclone genesis. We conduct two numerical experiments using the Weather Research and Forecasting Model Advanced Research WRF model in double nested domains with a horizontal grid space of 27 km and 9 km for the outer domain and the inner domain, respectively. The first experiment is based on reanalysis data (a control experiment) and the second includes increased water vapor content over the northwestern dry area of the disturbance. In the control experiment, the disturbance did not develop into a tropical cyclone in spite of the existence of the mid-level and low-level vortices. In contrast, the sensitivity experiment shows that a tropical cyclone was formed from the disturbance with increased water vapor content. The presence of persistent upright vortices was supported by continuous convection until the genesis of the tropical cyclone.
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