Objective: We studied the diagnostic performance of 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography in cervical and endometrial cancers with particular focus on lymph node metastases. Methods: Seventy patients with cervical cancer and 53 with endometrial cancer were imaged with 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography before lymphadenectomy. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography using the final pathological diagnoses as the golden standard. Results: We calculated the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography. In cervical cancer, the results evaluated by cases were 33.3, 92.7, 55.6 and 83.6%, respectively. When evaluated by the area of lymph nodes, the results were 30.6, 98.9, 55.0 and 97.0%, respectively. As for endometrial cancer, the results evaluated by cases were 50.0, 93.9, 40.0 and 95.8%, and by area of lymph nodes, 45.0, 99.4, 64.3 and 98.5%, respectively. The limitation of the efficacy was found out by analyzing it by the region of the lymph node, the size of metastatic node, the historical type of tumor in cervical cancer and the prevalence of lymph node metastasis. Conclusion: The efficacy of positron emission tomography/computed tomography regarding the detection of lymph node metastasis in cervical and endometrial cancer is not established and has limitations associated with the region of the lymph node, the size of metastasis lesion in lymph node and the pathological type of primary tumor. The indication for the imaging and the interpretation of the results requires consideration for each case by the pretest probability based on the information obtained preoperatively.
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