Purpose: In 2017, the first guidelines for fertility preservation in cancer patients were published in Japan. However, the impact of the guidelines remains unknown. Therefore, the authors conducted a nationwide survey on cryopreservation procedures in the period from shortly before to after publication of the guidelines (2016–2019) and compared the results with our previous survey (2011–2015). The authors also surveyed reproductive specialists’ awareness of the guidelines and implementation problems. Methods: The authors sent a questionnaire to 618 assisted reproductive technology facilities certified by the Japanese Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Results: The authors received responses from 395 institutions (63.8%). Among them, 144 institutions conducted cryopreservation for cancer patients (vs. 126 in 2011–2015) and performed 2537 embryo or oocyte and 178 ovarian tissue cryopreservation procedures (vs. 1085 and 122, respectively). Compared with the previous period, indications were more varied and protocols for controlled ovarian stimulation were more standardized. Reproductive specialists’ interest in oncofertility was high, but many reported three main difficulties: selecting a treatment method, storing samples in the long term, and securing the necessary human resources. Conclusions: The practice of fertility preservation in cancer patients in Japan has been considerably affected by the first Japanese guidelines.
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