In the embryo, the primary head sinus (PHS) is the first venous drainage channel in the craniocervical region. During embryonic development, this channel regresses and usually disappears completely; accordingly, a remnant of the PHS is an extremely rare condition and has been described in only a few previous studies. Here, we report a case of remnant of the PHS with a dural arteriovenous fistula (dAVF) in an adult. The remnant of the PHS had penetrated the petrous bone to run from the middle fossa to the jugular bulb and served as a drain for the middle fossa dAVF. We used digital subtraction angiography and reconstructed cone-beam computed tomography in 3D rotational angiography to obtain detailed anatomic information about the remnant PHS and additionally scrutinised and discussed its features.
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