Background and Aim: Patients with ulcerative colitis have an increased risk of colorectal dysplasia. Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for neoplastic lesions in ulcerative colitis remains controversial. The aim of this study was to clarify the role of ESD in the treatment strategy for ulcerative colitis. Methods: We retrospectively investigated 25 patients with ulcerative colitis in clinical remission who underwent colorectal ESD at 2 referral centers. We analyzed short-term and long-term outcomes. Preoperative diagnoses based on biopsy or endoscopy were also compared with the histologic diagnoses of resected specimens. Results: The mean size of the resected specimens was 34.9 ± 17.1 mm. The mean procedure time for ESD was 71.3 minutes. En bloc resection and R0 resection rates were achieved in 100% (25/25) and 76% (19/25), respectively. Postoperative bleeding and perforation during the procedure occurred in 0% and 4%, respectively. Five patients with noncurative resection underwent additional surgery. During a median 21 months (range, 8-80 months) follow-up, local recurrence did not occur. Metachronous high-grade dysplasia occurred in 1 case (4%). The biopsy predicted a final histologic diagnosis of carcinoma with a sensitivity of 72.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 46.5-90.3), accuracy of 78.2% (95% CI, 56.3-92.5). The endoscopic findings predicted a final histologic diagnosis of carcinoma with a sensitivity of 72.2% (95% CI, 46.5-90.3), accuracy of 76% (95% CI, 54.9-90.6). Conclusion: ESD for neoplasms in ulcerative colitis is feasible by expert endoscopists and may avoid unnecessary surgery. Because the biopsy and endoscopic findings had relatively low accuracy for the final histology, ESD could have a curative as well as a diagnostic purpose.
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