As a part of the Tokyo-Onsala-ESO-Calán Galactic CO survey, we have made large-scale mapping observations of the Galactic center in the CO J = 2-1 line using the 60 cm survey telescope in Chile. The data were taken with the same beam size (9′) and sampling grid (7′.5) as the CO J = 1-0 Columbia survey so that the two data sets can be compared directly. Velocity channel maps and longitude-velocity diagrams of the 12CO J = 2-1 line, covering -6° ≤ l ≤ 6°, -2° ≤ b ≤ 2°, -300 ≤ υLSR ≤ 300 km s-1, are presented, along with the corresponding maps of the 12CO J = 2-1/J = 1-0 intensity ratio [R2-1/1-0(12CO)]. A longitude-velocity diagram of the 13CO J = 2-1 line intensity and corresponding 13CO J = 2-1/12CO J = 2-1 intensity ratio [R13/12(J = 2-1)] is also presented at b = 0°. The overall R2-1/1-0(12CO) in the central 900 pc of the Galaxy is 0.96 ± 0.01, which is higher than the typical value in the Galactic disk, 0.6-0.7. The isotopic intensity ratio R13/12(J = 2-1) is 0.10 ± 0.01. The two observed intensity ratios [R2-1/1-0(12CO) and R13/12(J = 2-1)] indicate that the optical depth of the 12CO J = 1-0 line is ∼1 or smaller in the Galactic center molecular clouds, much smaller than those of the giant molecular clouds (GMCs) in the Galactic disk. Longitude-velocity distributions of physical properties of molecular gas are derived using a large velocity gradient analysis. Molecular gas in the Galactic center generally shows a high pressure. In particular, there is a high-pressure region in the central ∼100 pc where the pressure is an order of magnitude higher than that in GMCs in the Galactic disk. This region is dominated by high-density gas and contains star-forming regions.
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