A technique involving the physical and/or chemical adsorption of molecules in the subphase to the interfacial Langmuir monolayer has been developed to arrange protein molecules such as ferritin, bacteriorhodopsin (BR) (purple membrane) and cytochrome b562 in closely-packed two dimensional arrays. For better packing of molecules, site-directed mutagenesis of cytochrome b562 was introduced to enhance the hydrophobicity or to stabilize the molecules by introducing a cystine linkage. The photoreaction cycle of BR was analysed. From the sequence analysis of newly isolated BR-like pigments, it was suggested that several amino acid residues around the retinal were conserved and formed a "retinal pocket".
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