Periodically arranged nanostructures on a surface of or inside a material enable us to realize novel optical devices. In this presentation, we will describe recent efforts of our research on nanostructure fabrication on the basis of ultrafast scattered optical far-field. The formation of isolated nanowire gratings composed of a plasmonic material is demonstrated by only a simple process of femtosecond laser irradiation on a metal thin film spattered on a transparent substrate. The formation depends on optical, thermal, and wetting properties of the thin film and the substrate. In addition, periodical nanostructure formed on a surface of biodegradable polymers is demonstrated which has potential to control its biodegradability and surface properties. The technique based on the ultrafast optical field would contribute to realize high-throughput process for optical, electrical, and biomedical devices.