Lyngbyapeptin B is a hybrid polyketide-nonribosomal peptide isolated from particular marine cyanobacteria. In this report, we carried out genome sequence analysis of a producer cyanobacterium Moorena bouillonii to understand the biosynthetic mechanisms that generate the unique structural features of lyngbyapeptin B, including the (E)-3-methoxy-2-butenoyl starter unit and the C-terminal thiazole moiety. We identified a putative lyngbyapeptin B biosynthetic (lynB) gene cluster comprising nine open reading frames that include two polyketide synthases (PKSs: LynB1 and LynB2), four nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs: LynB3, LynB4, LynB5, and LynB6), a putative nonheme diiron oxygenase (LynB7), a type II thioesterase (LynB8), and a hypothetical protein (LynB9). In vitro enzymatic analysis of LynB2 with methyltransferase (MT) and acyl carrier protein (ACP) domains revealed that the LynB2 MT domain (LynB2-MT) catalyzes O-methylation of the acetoacetyl-LynB2 ACP domain (LynB2-ACP) to yield (E)-3-methoxy-2-butenoyl-LynB2-ACP. In addition, in vitro enzymatic analysis of LynB7 revealed that LynB7 catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of (4R)-2-methyl-2-thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid to yield 2-methylthiazole in the presence of Fe2+ and molecular oxygen. This result indicates that LynB7 is responsible for the last post-NRPS modification to give the C-terminal thiazole moiety in lyngbyapeptin B biosynthesis. Overall, we identified and characterized a new marine cyanobacterial hybrid PKS-NRPS biosynthetic gene cluster for lyngbyapeptin B production, revealing two unique enzymatic logics.
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