Errors in video watermark detection can cause serious problems, such as erroneous indication of illegal copying and erroneous copy control. These errors could not, however, be eliminated because watermarked pictures are subjected to wide varieties of image processing such as compression, resizing, filtering, or D/A or A/D conversion. Estimating errors of video watermarks is therefore an essential requirement for electric equipment that is to use copyright and copy-control information properly. This paper proposes a video watermarking method that estimates error probability from each watermarked frame at hand after image processing by using the expectation-maximization algorithm from inferential statistics. The paper also proposes a reliable detection system of video watermarks by using the proposed method. Experimental evaluations have shown that the new method can be used reliably with the margin factor and can be widely used in electric equipment as well as content-distribution systems.
|ジャーナル||Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering|
|出版ステータス||Published - 2005|
|イベント||Proceedings of SPIE-IS and T Electronic Imaging - Security, Steganography, and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents VII - San Jose, CA, United States|
継続期間: 2005 1月 17 → 2005 1月 20
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- コンピュータ サイエンスの応用