Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major health problem throughout the world, and understanding the pathological condition of CKD has become increasingly important. The recent development of advanced metabolomic assay techniques now allows the human metabolic condition to be evaluated sensitively and comprehensively. Objectives: The aim of this study was to use metabolomic analysis to perform a preliminary survey of metabolic changes occurring in patients with stage 1-2 CKD. Patients and Methods: Serum and urine metabolomic profiles of 15 patients with stage 1-2 CKD were analyzed using our previously reported capillary electrophoresis time-offlight mass spectrometry (CE-TOFMS) systems, and compared to 7 healthy volunteers. Results: The CE-TOFMS systems in three different modes for cation, anion, and nucleotide analyses detected multiple metabolites in serum and urine samples. In cation analysis mode, several increases in nonessential amino acids were identified in patients with stage 1-2 CKD, similar to those reported for end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Free-radical scavengers carnosine and hypotaurine were decreased in the urine, whereas serum hypotaurine and taurine were increased, consistent with changes in renal and/or systemic oxidative stress. Moreover, the cardiotoxin hypoxanthine was markedly increased in the serum, whereas serum and urine adenosine and urine guanine were decreased, suggesting changes in purine nucleotide metabolism which could affect cardiovascular prognosis. Changes in other unidentified metabolites were also detected. Conclusions: These results suggest that multiple changes in the metabolism are already detectable in stage 1-2 CKD using metabolome analysis. Further studies on these metabolic changes may result in new strategies to prevent cardiovascular events and progression to ESRD in patients with CKD.
|Published - 2011
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