Aims: Furosemide, a short-acting loop diuretic (SD), is the dominant agent prescribed for heart failure (HF) in clinical practice. However, accumulating data suggests that long-acting loop diuretics (LD), such as torsemide or azosemide, might have more favourable pharmacological profiles. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the type of loop diuretics and long-term outcomes among patients hospitalized for acute HF enrolled in a contemporary multicentre registry. Methods and results: Within the West Tokyo Heart Failure Registry from 2006 to 2017, a total of 2680 patients (60.1% men with a median age of 77 years) were analysed. The patients were characterized by the type of diuretics used at the time of discharge; 2073 (77.4%) used SD, and 607 (22.6%) used LD. The primary endpoint was composite of all-cause death or HF re-admission after discharge, and the secondary endpoints were all-cause death and HF re-admission, respectively. During the median follow-up period of 2.1 years, 639 patients died [n = 519 (25.0%) in the SD group; n = 120 (19.8%) in the LD group], and 868 patients were readmitted for HF [n = 697 (33.6%) in the SD group; n = 171 (28.2%) in the LD group]. After multivariable adjustment, the LD group had lower risk for the composite outcome [hazard ratio (HR), 0.80; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.66–0.96; P = 0.017], including all-cause death (HR; 0.73; 95% CI; 0.54–0.99; P = 0.044) and HF re-admission (HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.66–0.99; P = 0.038), than the SD group. Propensity score matching yielded estimates that were consistent with those of the multivariable analyses, with sub-group analyses demonstrating that use of LD was associated with favourable outcomes predominantly in younger patients with reduced ejection fraction. Conclusions: LD was associated with lower risk of long-term outcomes in patients with HF and a recent episode of acute decompensation.
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