Purpose: The BioFire FilmArray® Meningitis/Encephalitis Panel (FAMEP) is designed to rapidly and accurately detect common multiple pathogens that cause central nervous system (CNS) infection, including viruses, bacteria, and yeast. The FAMEP’s usefulness in the setting of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has not been fully evaluated. This retrospective study evaluated the usefulness of the FAMEP in the screening for CNS infection after allogeneic HSCT. Methods: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was obtained from 12 patients to evaluate the causes of CNS disorders after allogeneic HSCT, and the FAMEP was applied. Results: The median day of the FAMEP evaluations was 27 days post-transplant (range, 0–390). Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) was detected in three patients and cytomegalovirus was detected in one patient, leading to the diagnosis of encephalitis/myelitis. In three patients (HHV-6, n = 2; CMV, n = 1), the presence of the viruses was confirmed by conventional real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). However, in the remaining patient with HHV-6 detected by the AMEP, HHV-6 was not detected by real-time PCR at the onset but was detected 7 days later. The treatments for the detected viruses improved the clinical conditions in the four patients. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the FAMEP can be a useful sensitive assay in the screening and diagnosis of CNS viral infections after allogeneic HSCT.
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