Using non-normal SEM to resolve the ACDE model in the classical twin design

Koken Ozaki, Hideki Toyoda, Norikazu Iwama, Saori Kubo, Juko Ando

研究成果: Article査読

28 被引用数 (Scopus)


One of the biggest problems in classical twin studies is that it cannot estimate additive genetic (A), non-additive genetic (D), shared environmental (C), and non-shared environmental (E) effects, simultaneously, because the model, referred to as the ACDE model, has negative degrees of freedom when using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Therefore, instead of the ACDE model, the ACE model or the ADE model is actually used. However, using the ACE or ADE models almost always leads to biased estimates. In the present paper, the univariate ACDE model is developed using non-normal Structural Equation Modeling (nnSEM). In SEM, (1st- and) 2nd-order moments, namely, (means and) covariances are used as information. However, nnSEM uses higher-order moments as well as (1st- and) 2nd-order moments. nnSEM has a number of advantages over SEM. One of which is that nnSEM can specify models that cannot be specified using SEM because of the negative degrees of freedom. Simulation studies have shown that the proposed method can decrease the biases. There are other factors that have possible effects on phenotypes, such as higher-order epistasis. Since the proposed method cannot estimate these effects, further research on developing a more exhaustive model is needed.

ジャーナルBehavior Genetics
出版ステータスPublished - 2011 3月

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • 生態、進化、行動および分類学
  • 遺伝学
  • 遺伝学(臨床)


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