Background: Although self-reported questionnaires are widely employed in epidemiologic studies, their validity has not been sufficiently assessed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity of a self-reported questionnaire on medication use by comparison with health insurance claims and to identify individual determinants of discordance in the Tsuruoka Metabolomics Cohort Study. Methods: Participants were 2,472 community-dwellers aged 37 to 78 years from the Tsuruoka Metabolomics Cohort Study. Information on lifestyle and medications was collected through a questionnaire. Sensitivity and specificity were determined using health insurance claims from November 2014 to March 2016, which were used as a standard. Potential determinants of discordance were assessed using multivariable logistic regression. Results: The self-reported questionnaire on medication use showed high validity. Sensitivity and specificity were 0.95 (95% CI, 0.93–0.96) and 0.97 (95% CI, 0.96–0.98) for antihypertensive medications, 0.94 (95% CI, 0.91–0.97) and 0.98 (95% CI, 0.98–0.99) for diabetes medications, and 0.84 (95% CI, 0.82–0.87) and 0.98 (95% CI, 0.97–0.99) for dyslipidemia medications, respectively. Males without high education and those who currently smoke cigarettes were found to be associated with discordant reporting which affected sensitivity, especially those with medication use for dyslipidemia. Conclusions: In this population-based cohort study, we found that the self-reported questionnaire on medication use was a valid measure to capture regular medication users. Sensitivity for dyslipidemia medications was lower than those for the other medications. Type of medication, sex, education years, and smoking status influenced discordance, which affected sensitivity in self-reporting.
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