Advances in basic and clinical research have revealed that Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection plays an important role in the development of gastroduodenal dysmotility and hypersensitivity, as also in dyspepsia symptoms. In addition, recent studies have proposed an inflammation-immunological model for the pathogenesis of functional dyspepsia. Since H. pylori is the major microbe that provokes a gastroduodenal inflammatory response, it should not be overlooked when considering the pathophysiology of dyspepsia symptoms. In fact, population-based studies have demonstrated that H. pylori is detected more frequently in dyspepsia patients. However, although many clinical studies tried to reveal the association of H. pylori infection with gastric motility dysfunction or hypersensitivity, the results have been conflicting. On the other hand, many etiological features were revealed for the development of H. pylori-associated dyspepsia, such as abnormal ghrelin or leptic secretion, altered expression of muscle-specific microRNAs, and duodenal inflammatory cell infiltration. In addition, therapeutic strategy for H. pylori-associated dyspepsia would be different from H. pylori-negative functional dyspepsia. This review focuses the issue of whether H. pylori-associated dyspepsia should be considered as a different disease entity from functional dyspepsia.
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