In Japan, the entry of women into the work force has become increasingly common. The number of dual-earner families has been larger than that of single-earner families since 1997. Wives play a more important role in child care and housework in dual-earner couples with one or more children because of their husbands' longer working hours and because they conform to traditional gender roles. Thus, there is a potential for interference or conflict between the work and non-work lives of dual- earner couples (especially for the wives). This chapter examines work-family balance and its impact on well-being among Japanese dual-earner couples from a spillover-crossover perspective. It also discusses several unexamined issues, which need further research.
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